The purpose of the Arkansas Infant and Child Death Review (ICDR) Program is to improve the response to infant and child fatalities, provide accurate information on how and why Arkansas children are dying, and ultimately reduce the number of preventable infant and child deaths by establishing an effective review and standardized data collection system for all unexpected infant and child deaths. Act 1818 of 2005 defines unexpected death as "a death involving a child who has not been in the care of a licensed physician for treatment of an illness that is the cause of death; a clinical diagnosis of death due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome; or a death due to an unknown cause" (Act 1818 of 2005).

The Arkansas ICDR Program is charged with establishing multidisciplinary review teams (MDTs) in communities across Arkansas. After the teams are established the Arkansas ICDR Program then provides guidance, training and technical support to the local multi-disciplinary teams. MDTs usually consist of a representative from the following disciplines: Coroner; Crimes Against Children's Division of the Arkansas State Police; Division of Children and Family Services; Emergency Medical Services; Law Enforcement; Medical Examiner; Medical Personnel (Pediatrician or Advance Practice Nurse); Public Health and Prosecuting Attorney.

The Arkansas Infant & Child Death Review Program is administered by the Department of Pediatrics of the University of Arkansas Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children's Hospital and supported by a contract with the Arkansas Department of Health Family Health Branch.