January 10, 2020
*Updated January 21, 2022
Folic acid is a B Vitamin. Our bodies use it to make new cells like hair, skin, and nails. During early development, folic acid helps form the neural tube. Folic acid is very important because it helps prevent some major birth defects in the baby’s brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida). These types of brain and spine birth defects are called neural tube defects.
Folate is a term for many different forms of vitamin B9. Folate is in leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits and beans. Folic acid is added to some foods such as rice, breads, pastas and cereals, and these foods are labeled "enriched." Folic acid is the only form of folate shown to help prevent neural tube defects. In addition to eating foods with folate from a varied diet, you can:
Many women need to take medicine to stay healthy, and there are often benefits to continuing your treatment throughout your pregnancy. If you are trying to have a baby or are just thinking about it, now is a great time to start getting ready for pregnancy by talking with your doctor about medications you may be taking.
Women who are already pregnant or think they could be pregnant should also see their healthcare providers. Start prenatal care right away. It is important to see your healthcare provider regularly throughout pregnancy. So be sure to keep all prenatal care appointments.
It is not easy to study medicine use in pregnancy. This means there may not be easy answers about possible risks for some medications when used in pregnancy. If you plan to become pregnant, discuss your current medications with your healthcare providers, such as your doctor or pharmacist.
There are often benefits to continuing your treatment throughout your pregnancy. However, if you and your healthcare provider decide to change your medicines, discussing a treatment plan before pregnancy can give you time to consider all options that can help keep you and your developing baby as healthy as possible.
Planning how to take care of your health conditions before you become pregnant can help keep you and your developing baby healthy. Don't forget to talk about your family history when visiting your healthcare provider! Your doctor might alter your care or refer you for genetic or nutritional counseling based on your family history.
Vaccines help protect you and your baby. Some vaccinations, such as the flu (influenza) vaccine and the Tdap vaccine (adult tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine), are specifically recommended during each pregnancy.
Having the right vaccinations at the right time can help keep you and your baby healthy. Get a flu shot and Tdap vaccine during each pregnancy to help protect yourself and your baby.
Obesity increases the risk of several serious birth defects and other pregnancy complications. If you are underweight, overweight, or obese, talk with your healthcare provider about ways to reach and maintain a healthy weight before you get pregnant. Eating healthy foods and being physically active are great ways to prepare for pregnancy.
One size does not fit all. During pregnancy, follow the guidelines for weight gain that match your weight before pregnancy. Talk to your provider about making physical activity a part of a healthy pregnancy.
Alcohol: There is no known safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy or when trying to get pregnant. A developing baby is exposed to the same concentration of alcohol as the mother during pregnancy. This can result in a range of lifelong physical, behavioral, and intellectual disabilities. Alcohol use in pregnancy can also increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, prematurity, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In addition, alcohol may make it harder for a woman to become pregnant.
Alcohol can have negative effects on a baby's development at any time during pregnancy, including before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Therefore, it is important to stop drinking alcohol when trying to get pregnant.
Tobacco: Today, tobacco can be consumed in multiple ways; this includes traditional forms like cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chew, snuff, and hookah, as well as newer forms like e-cigarettes/vapes.
Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, and other major health problems. Smoking during pregnancy can harm the placenta and developing baby and cause certain birth defects. The placenta grows in your uterus (womb) and supplies the baby with food and oxygen through the umbilical cord. Cigarette smoke has over 4,000 chemicals. When you smoke during pregnancy, chemicals like nicotine, carbon monoxide and tar damage the placenta and/or pass through the placenta and umbilical cord to reach your baby's bloodstream. Quitting smoking will help you feel better and provide a healthier environment for your baby.
Because they are relatively new and not well-regulated, there is less information about the effects of e-cigarettes on pregnancy. Until more information is available, it is recommended that pregnant women not use e-cigarettes.
Marijuana: During pregnancy, the chemicals in marijuana (in particular, tetrahydrocannabinol or THC) pass through mom to a developing baby and can harm a baby’s development. In animal studies, combined exposure to even low levels of marijuana in combination with alcohol has been associated with impaired brain development of the baby (1, 2). More research is needed to better understand how marijuana may affect mom and baby during pregnancy. However, it is recommended that pregnant women not use marijuana.
Prescription Opioids: Painkillers such as codeine, morphine, and oxycodone may be prescribed following an injury, surgery, or dental work. Any opioid exposure during pregnancy can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome, a condition in which the newborn experiences from withdrawal from certain drugs after exposure during pregnancy. If you are pregnant and taking an opioid, talk to your doctor before making any changes. Ask about options for opioid treatment to decide what is best for you and your pregnancy.
Other Drugs: Using certain drugs during pregnancy can cause health problems for a woman and her developing baby. If you are pregnant/trying to get pregnant and cannot stop using drugs―please ask for help! A healthcare provider can help you with counseling, treatment, and other support services.